FRAGILE STATE

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Nepal is one of the poorest and least developed countries in the world, with 25% of its population living below the poverty line. Nepal ranks 200 of 230 countries in GDP and is heavily dependent on remittances, which amount to 29% of GDP. Agriculture is the main livelihood for 70% of the population.  

Current Challenges

Lack of Safe and Healthy Work Opportunities – Annual per capita income is $742 (USD equivalent). 22% of the population are unemployed. Nepal ranks 145 of 173 countries in prevalence of work with exploitation, risks and insecurities including child labor and low in human development. Young men and women are especially vulnerable, often seeking risky jobs abroad, susceptible to sex trafficking and slavery.

Lack of Governmental Assistance – There is no aid for the poor or elderly, no food assistance, free healthcare clinics, national health insurance, or division of family services.

No Free Accessible Education – Only 72% of adult males and 49% of adult females are literate, and Nepal ranks 110 of 144 countries on the global gender gap which measures gender based access to resources and opportunities. Children, especially the poorest, do not continue to post-basic education (10th grade) and the quality of education at all levels remains a problem. Only 30% of children receive early childhood education.

Poor Healthcare and Nutrition – 40 of every 1000 children die before age 5. 40% of children suffer from severe to moderate stunted due to lack of nutrition. 

Poor Infrastructure – There is unreliable electrical power and low-quality transportation networks with frequent load shedding 7 or more hours per day. The Post-Disaster Needs Assessment conducted after the earthquake found that total damage and losses resulting from the earthquake amounted to about $7 billion, and reconstruction needs amounted to about $6.7 billion. 7 million people or 24% do not have access to electricity.  Only 37% of people have adequate sanitation facilities.

Poor and Unstable Government – The country ranks low on international governance indicators such as Transparency International’s Corruption Perception Index 2015 (130 out of 175 countries) and Political Stability and Absence of Terrorism. Political turmoil frequently causes schools and businesses to close, and a fearfulness of violence during demonstrations paralyzes the country and economy.

Nepal Earthquake and Aftermath – Nepal was hit by massive earthquakes in early 2015, which damaged or destroyed infrastructure and homes and set back economic development. Political gridlock in the past several years and recent public protests, predominantly in the southern Tarai region, have hindered post-earthquake recovery and prevented much-needed economic reform.  

Sources: Human Development Report 2015; Unicef: State of the World’s Children 2016; Global Gender Gap Report 2016; World Bank Report 2016

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EDUCATION

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Although there are government schools in Nepal, they charge extra fees that make it too expensive for many Nepali families to afford.
 

Only about four out of every five primary school-aged children are in school.  In addition, dropout and repetition rates are high, particularly in Grade 1, with one in three children repeating Grade 1 and 15% dropping out.

When adolescent children leave school, they usually enter the workforce. Children of this age run a high risk of labor exploitation.

72% of children in government schools fail the School Leaving Certificate exam and therefore cannot progress past 10th grade.

For girls from some families, education is viewed as a poor investment since daughters leave their family's home at marriage and the benefit of their learning is given to someone else.

If a choice has to be made between sending a boy or a girl to school, the boy will usually be given precedence.

Only 44% of women and girls are literate. 

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It is common for schools to be poorly equipped with no seating, no desks, no blackboard, a lack of adequate lighting, and a roof that leaks when it rains.

Many schools lack toilets and a clean water supply and classroom materials are insufficient and of poor quality.

 

 

 

 

 

WHY NEPAL?

HEALTH AND SANITATION

  • 90% of the population has no access to health care.
  • Only 38% of the population has access to adequate sanitation.

Although Nepal is naturally bestowed with ample water resources there are still many people without access to safe water.  While 85% of the population has access to water through improved water supply systems, only 17.9% of the available systems are estimated to be well-functioning and 28.9% requiring minor repair.

In Kathmandu, residents must buy water from water delivery trucks or walk to wells.

5 nurses and doctors per 100,000 citizens.

Only 36% of births are attended by a healthcare professional.

About 49% of Nepalese children under 5 years old suffer from stunting, a measure of chronic malnutrion, which is one of the highest rates in the world.

About one in 25 children die during the first month of life in Nepal.

For the child that survives its first month, the following 11 months are likely to offer a number of challenges. Most deaths are the result of diarrhea and/or acture respiratory infections. These conditions are usually exacerbated by underlying malnutrition, and poor standards of care and environmental hygiene.

In the remote villages of Nepal, if someone has a serious infection, appendicitis, or a moderate to severe medical problem, and there is not enough time to walk three days to the nearest day-long bus trip to Kathmandu, they will likely die.

Life expectancy is 10-15 years lower than developed countries.

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EDUCATION

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There is no free public educational system in Nepal.

For girls from some families, education is viewed as a 'poor investment' since daughters leave their family's home at marriage and the benefit of their 'learning' is given to someone else.

If a choice has to be made between sending a boy or a girl to school, the boy will usually be given precedence.

It is common for schools to be poorly equipped with no seating, no desks, no blackboard, a lack of adequate lighting, and a roof that leaks when it rains.

Many schools lack toilets and a clean water supply and classroom materials are insufficient and of poor quality.

Corporal punishment and verbal abuse are commonplace, with teachers often targeting those who are least likely to resist, such as younger students, girls, slow-learning students, the 'lower' castes, and the disabled.

Only about four out of every five primary school-aged children are in school.  In addition, dropout and repetition rates are high, particularly in Grade 1, with one in three children repeating Grade 1 and 15% dropping out.

72% of children in government schools fail the School Leaving Certificate exam and therefore cannot progress past 9th grade.

When adolescent children leave school, they usually enter the workforce. Children of this age run a high risk of labor exploitation, especially as they are more likely than younger children to leave their family and home to find work.

FAILED STATE

700% USD (equivalent) annual per capita income.

Unemployment rate of 40%.

Agriculture absorbs 74% of workforce.

Tax only contributes 13% to GDP, insufficient for infrastructure.

Political turmoil frequently causes schools and businesses to close, and a fearfulness of violence during demonstrations paralyzes the country and economy.

Nepali government has yet to produce a constitution and political parties rival for power as corruption continues to hinder economic growth.

There is no government aid for the poor, such as food assistance, free healthcare clinics, national health insurance, or division of family services.

Load-shedding up to 16 hours per day (this varies by time of the year).

Only 40% of the 27.47 million population has access to electricity.

In addition to widespread malnutrition and infectious diseases, HIV is becoming an increasing problem.  Sex slavers kidnap or buy young girls in rural areas in order to transport them back to brothels where men believe that having sex with virgins will cure them of AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases.  After several years of captivity, the girls are then sent back to their villages where they pass the infection on to others.

250,000 girls between 9 and 16 are trafficked annually to India and the Middle East.

Only 44% of women and girls are literate.

Global Gender Gap Report 2013 ranked Nepal 121st out of 136 countries.

Ranked 157th out of 187 countries listed in the Human Development Report 2013. 

Ranked 30th of 178 countries on the 2013 Failed States Index.

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HEALTH & SANITATION

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90% of the population has no access to health care.

5 nurses and doctors per 100,000 citizens.

Only 36% of births are attended by a healthcare professional.

About 49% of Nepalese children under 5 years old suffer from stunting, a measure of chronic malnutrion, which is one of the highest rates in the world.

In addition to widespread malnutrition and infectious diseases, HIV is becoming an increasing problem.  Sex slavers kidnap or buy young girls in rural areas in order to transport them back to brothels where men believe that having sex with virgins will cure them of AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases.  After several years of captivity, the girls are then sent back to their villages where they pass the infection on to others.

250,000 girls between 9 and 16 are trafficked annually to India and the Middle East.

In the remote villages of Nepal, if someone has a serious infection, appendicitis, or a moderate to severe medical problem, and there is not enough time to walk three days to the nearest day-long bus trip to Kathmandu, they will likely die.

 

 

 

 

Only 38% of the population has access to adequate sanitation.

Over half of Nepal's children do not have access to a toilet of any kind and must defecate in open spaces with obvious implications for the spread of diseases.

Although Nepal is naturally bestowed with ample water resources there are still many people without access to safe water.  While 85% of the population has access to water through improved water supply systems, only 17.9% of the available systems are estimated to be well-functioning and 28.9% requiring minor repair.

In Kathmandu, residents must buy water from water delivery trucks or walk to wells.

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